Construire en terre by CRAterre

By CRAterre

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Modern FIB machines can create test points and modify the chip structure from the rear side thus overcoming sophisticated top metal mesh protections and sensors [68]. Current trends in the miniaturisation of electronic devices demand the ability to understand the structure and properties of the deep submicron level (the latest technology is 90 nm, and 65 nm is proposed). Within the last few years nanotechnologies have become widely available and started to be used in failure analysis. One of them is atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Data remanence can take place in non-volatile memories as well; the residual charge left on a floating gate transistor may be detected. For example, it could affect a threshold level or timeswitching characteristics. The next possible way of attacking a device is playing around with its interface signals and access protocols. Also, if a security protocol is wrongly implemented, that leaves a hole for the attacker to exploit. Some microcontrollers and smartcards have a factory-test interface that provides access to on-chip memory and allows the manufacturer to test the device.

Most of the modern failure analysis techniques require very expensive equipment and highly skilled attackers. Only large laboratories and chip manufacturers can afford them. On the other hand, an attacker does not need all this equipment as he will often succeed with relatively low41 cost equipment. Some equipment can be bought second-hand or built from available components. Chip manufacturers get rid of old equipment at auctions. There are also some companies dealing with second-hand equipment [72].

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