By Robert Hanneman
This quantity presents a brand new set of instruments for growing and analysing theories. Computer-Assisted conception development re-orients the best way many social scientists construct and paintings with theories, and it'll end up of price to all practicing social technological know-how theorists. simply because verbal formulations are insufficiently particular and mathematical formulations are usually too restrictive, the writer proposes a brand new formal language as a center means among the 2, advocating computing device simulation versions to permit the formula of extra dynamic theories. Hanneman's theories and versions may still stimulate the advance of extra robust explanatory theories in lots of social technology disciplines.
The quantity is split into 3 elements; half One offers all of the instruments essential to comprehend the versions built later, and to start translating present theories into formal dynamic versions by utilizing a semi-formal language, DYNAMO. partially , a few widely-used uncomplicated structures are offered in the framework of dynamic platforms, and are tested as development blocks for extra complicated versions. partly 3, more and more complicated types -- representing all approach varieties had to construct theories approximately phenomena of any measure of complexity -- are explored by utilizing computer-assisted simulation types.
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Extra info for Computer-assisted theory building: modeling dynamic social systems
The GAO report emphasized one major problem: In a catastrophic disaster like Hurricane Andrew, it made no sense for FEMA to wait for state and local authorities to make a formal request and for the president to declare a major disaster. 36 FEMA needed to plan more before a disaster so that it could respond immediately—within hours—with food, water, and temporary shelter. The GAO report recommended that for hurricanes and rising floodwaters, when the weather service could give several days’ warning, FEMA should mobilize its resources as a storm approaches.
Bush, in office for less than nine months, faced an unprecedented disaster. The terrorist attacks ended up shifting disaster response away from its past emphasis on natural disasters and gave new power to military and law enforcement agencies. Many also say the concern with terrorism that followed the attacks ended the improvements made in FEMA during the 1990s and weakened its ability to respond to natural disasters. The change in disaster response stemmed from the hijacking of four commercial passenger jets by 19 men affiliated with an alliance of militant and radical Islamic groups called al-Qaeda.
As part of its mission, the new office took on duties that overlapped with those of FEMA. The duties included coordinating national efforts to prepare for and mitigate the consequences of terrorist attacks within the United States. Since terrorist attacks were one form of emergency or disaster, FEMA previously had some of these responsibilities. Another agency would now review and assess emergency response plans, coordinate exercises to respond to terrorist attacks, and ensure the readiness of federal response teams.