By Richard Jackson Harris (Eds.)
This number of 33 papers represents the most up-tp-date considering andresearch at the examine of cognitive processing in bilingual contributors. Thecontributors comprise famous figures within the box and promising newscholars, representing 4 continents and paintings in dozens of languages.Instead of the social, political, or academic implications ofbilingualism, the focal point is on how bilingual humans (mostly adults) thinkand approach language.
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Keatley question of whether memory is separate or shared an empty question, since it is neither. Rather, Kolers emphasized the importance of the similarity of encodings, and of the means of the encodings, in determining when recall will be increased by repetition. This idea was developed by Durgunoglu and Roediger (1987), as discussed below. Paivio does not agree that the shared-separate dichotomy is empty. He believes in the separate model of memory and has developed the dual-coding model of bilingual memory (Paivio, 1986, Paivio, Clark & Lambert, 1988, Paivio & Desrochers, 1980; Paivio & Lambert, 1981) based on his dual-coding model of memory for images and words (Paivio, 1971, 1986; Paivio & Begg, 1981).
This hypothesis is embedded in the three-code model of bilingual memory. The three-code model of bilingual memory contends there are different levels of word processing, with words having different representations in the different levels. At the more superficial level, a word has a lexical representation which is language specific, representing the word name but not its meaning. At a deeper level, the word meaning is stored in a shared conceptual memory system within which representations of concepts are amodal and unrelated to any language or perceptuaVsensory system.
Monolingual and bilingual subjects produced exactly the same responses to real words in the monolingual mode; however, bilinguals were slower in responding to nonwords. In the bilingual mode, bilinguals were slower to respond to code-switched words than words in the monolingual mode, and again they were slower at rejecting nonwords. These results provided more evidence that both language systems of a bilingual are active while processing linguistic stimuli. The results also suggested that bilinguals, even when in a monolingual mode, search both lexicons when confronted with nonwords.