By Teresa P. R. Caldeira
Teresa Caldeira's pioneering learn of worry, crime, and segregation in S?o Paulo poses crucial questions about citizenship and concrete swap in modern democratic societies. targeting S?o Paulo, and utilizing comparative facts on l. a., she identifies new styles of segregation constructing in those towns and means that those styles are showing in lots of metropolises.
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Additional info for City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in São Paulo
They obtained most of their urban infrastructure and neighborhood services in the 1980s and thus helped to urbanize the periphery (see chapter 6). Most people managed to enlarge and finish their autoconstructed houses. As they repeated to me many times, they could not see any results from their efforts. " To compound their feelings of hopelessness, they realized that their neighborhood, the calm and peaceful place where they grew up playing in the streets, was becoming dangerous. Some of their friends had already been killed on the same streets where they used to play together.
Cience theories and public policies. s Even at the height of popular belief m progress and social mobility, in the period from 1950 to 1980, the gap between the ideal of development and the Brazilian reality offered a background for discussions about the future. One of the formulaic ways to deal with this gap has been to assert that "0 Brasil e 0 pals do futuro" (Brazil is the country of the future). However, Brazilians have always treated this observation with irony. This ironic view is expressed, for example, by an old Brazilian joke that various interviewees mentioned.
5 percent a year between 1940 and 1970 . these metropolitan regions is concentrated around 30 percent of the. BrazIlIan population, which in 1996 reached 157 million, 78 percent of whIch was urban. c~n~,mic expansion of the 1970S and the consolidation of a "system of cities -a complex pattern of territorial division of labor between the. countr,Yside and the cities and between cities (Faria 1991:103)-are associated WIth complex changes in economic production. 16 Its most dynamic sector has been durable consumer goods for the internal market, which is as~ociate~ with.