Chemical Bonding. A Chem1 Reference Text(en)(77s) by Lower S. K.

By Lower S. K.

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It looks like the “simple” explanation that bonding occurs through two half occupied atomic- p orbitals 90° apart comes closer to the mark. Per haps hybridization is not an all-or -nothing phenomenon; perhaps the two 3p orbitals are substantially intact in hydrogen sulfide, or are only hybridized very slightly. In general, the hybridization model does not work very well with nonmetallic elements below the first row of the periodic table, and there is as yet no clear explanation why. We must simply admit that we have reached one of the many points in chemistry where our theory is not sufficiently developed to give a clear and unequivocal answer.

6 Atoms bonded to five atoms Compounds of the type AB5 are formed by some of the elements in Group 15 of the periodic table; PCl5 and AsF5 are examples. In what directions can five electron pairs arrange themselves in space so as to minimize their mutual repulsions? In the cases of coordination numbers 2, 3, 4, and 6, we could imagine that the electron pairs distributed themselves as far apart as possible on the surface of a sphere the resulting shapes correspond to the regular polyhedron whose number of vertices is equal to the coordination number.

Experiments, however, reveal that the bond H-S-H bond angle is only 92°. Hydrogen sulfide thus deviates much more from tetrahedral geometry than does water, and there is no apparent and clear reason why it should. It is certainly difficult to argue that electron-repulsion between the two nonbonding orbitals is pushing the H-S bonds closer together (as is supposed to happen to the H-O bonds in water); many would argue that this repulsion would be less in hydrogen sulfide than in water, since sulfur is a larger atom and is hence less electronegative.

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