By Wang J., MacNeil J.D., Kay J.F.
Content material: Antibiotics : teams and homes / Philip T. Reeves -- Pharmacokinetics, distribution, bioavailability, and courting to antibiotic residues / Peter Lees and Pierre-Louis Toutain -- Antibiotic residues in nutrition, ingesting water, and foodstuff defense rules / Kevin J. Greenlees, Lynn G. Friedlander, and Alistair Boxall -- pattern education : extraction and clean-up / Alida A.M. (Linda) Stolker and Martin Danaher -- Bioanalytical screening tools / Sara Stead and Jacques Stark -- Chemical research : quantitative and confirmatory equipment / Jian Wang and Sherri B. Turnipseed -- unmarried residue quantitative and confirmatory tools / Jonathan Tarbin ... [et al.] -- technique improvement and strategy validation / Jack F. Kay and James D. MacNeil -- size uncertainty / Jian Wang ... [et al.] -- caliber insurance and qc / Andrew Cannavan, Jack Kay, and Bruno Le Bizec
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On exposure to light, olaquindox forms a reactive oxaziridine derivative, and this imino-N -oxide reacts with protein to form a photoallergen. 4) in food-producing species is associated with food safety concerns. 82,83 In the case of olaquindox, the JECFA84 concluded that the substance is potentially genotoxic and that the toxicity of its metabolites is inadequately understood. For these reasons, the JECFA was unable to determine the amount of residues in food that did not cause an appreciable risk to human health, and thus MRLs were not established for these compounds by the CAC (see Chapter 3 for further discussion).
5) is contraindicated in horses because of the potential risk of serious or fatal enterocolitis and diarrhea. This commonly involves overgrowth of the normal microﬂora by nonsusceptible bacteria such as Clostridium species. Oral administration of lincomycin to ruminants has also been associated with adverse side effects such as anorexia, ketosis, and diarrhea. Such use is therefore contraindicated in ruminants. The limited information available suggests that lincomycin does not pose a risk to organisms in those environments where the drug is known to be used.
These antibiotics are susceptible to the action of β-lactamases. However, amoxicillin and amoxicillin plus clavulanate (a β-lactamase inhibitor) are widely used in livestock and companion animals to treat Gram-negative infections, particularly those caused by enteric Enterobacteriaceae. The next development was the anti-pseudomonal penicillins such as carbenicillin. These antibiotics are not commonly used in animals. The ﬁnal class is the (Gram-negative) β-lactamase resistant penicillins such as temocillin.