Brain-Computer Interfacing: An Introduction by Rajesh P. N. Rao

By Rajesh P. N. Rao

The belief of interfacing minds with machines has lengthy captured the human mind's eye. fresh advances in neuroscience and engineering are making this a fact, beginning the door to recovery and augmentation of human actual and psychological features. clinical functions resembling cochlear implants for the deaf and neurally managed prosthetic limbs for the paralyzed have gotten nearly commonplace.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) also are more and more getting used in safety, lie detection, alertness tracking, telepresence, gaming, schooling, paintings, and human augmentation. This creation to the sector is designed as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate classes in neural engineering or brain-computer interfacing for college kids from a variety of disciplines. it may well even be used for self-study and as a reference by way of neuroscientists, machine scientists, engineers, and clinical practitioners. Key positive aspects comprise questions and routines in every one bankruptcy and a helping web site.

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Compare and contrast fNIR imaging with fMRI for recording brain activity. 16. Describe two invasive and two noninvasive techniques for stimulating neurons in intact brains. Explain the trade-­off between specificity in stimulation versus invasiveness. 17. What are the benefits offered by an implantable chip such as the Neurochip for simultaneous recording and stimulation, compared to using a standard array of microelectrodes? ­4 Signal Processing In this chapter, we review the signal-­processing methods applied to recorded brain signals in BCIs for tasks ranging from extracting spikes from the raw signals recorded from invasive electrodes to extracting features for classification.

The opposite phenomenon of anti-­Hebbian STDP, where the synapse is strengthened for presynaptic spike occurring after postsynaptic spike and vice versa, has also been 13 Basic ­Neuroscience observed in some structures, particularly in inhibitory synapses such as those in cerebellum like structures in weakly electric fish. 4 Short-­Term Facilitation and Depression The types of synaptic plasticity discussed above are called long-­term plasticity because the changes they cause can last for hours, days, or even longer periods of time.

ECoG is typically performed only in clinical settings, such as in-­hospital monitoring of seizure activity in epilepsy patients. Typically, a grid or strip of m × n electrodes is implanted, where the values of m and n vary between 1 and 8. ECoG electrodes can be tipped with carbon, platinum, or gold alloy, and are typically 2–5 mm in diameter. 4. ECoG in a human. (A) and (B) Implantation of an ECoG array. The brain is surgically exposed (A), and an electrode array (B) is placed under the dura onto the brain surface.

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