Biomaterials Science - An Intro to Materials in Medicine by B. Ratner, et al.,

By B. Ratner, et al.,

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The fatigue strength is sensitive to environment, temperature, corrosion, deterioration (of tissue specimens), and cycle rate (especially for viscoelastic materials) (Newey and Weaver, 1990). Careful attention to these details is required if laboratory fatigue results are to be successfully transferred to biomedical applications. 2 Time B Ultimate tensile strength range Fatigue It is not uncommon for materials, including tough and ductile ones like 316L stainless steel, to fracture even though the service stresses imposed are well below the yield stress.

To resolve this confusion, the load and deformation can be normalized. To do this, the load is divided by the crosssectional area available to support the load, and the extension is divided by the original length of the specimen. The load can then be reported as load per unit of cross-sectional area, and the deformation can be reported as the elongation per unit of the original length over which the elongation occurred. In this way, the effects of specimen geometry can be normalized. The normalized load (force/area) is stress (σ ) and the normalized deformation (change in length/original length) is strain (ε) (Fig.

2 (psi) 3. 2 (psi) 4. 2% e ductility ) 5. Toughness (work to fracture per unit volume) eductility FIG. 8. Stress versus strain for a ductile material. (Pa) a F, force; A, area; d, length; V, volume. b lbf, pounds force. The area under the tensile curve is proportional to the work required to deform a specimen until it fails. The area under the entire curve is proportional to the product of stress and strain, and has the units of energy (work) per unit volume of specimen. The work to fracture is a measure of toughness and reflects a material’s resistance to crack propagation (Fig.

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