Biogeochemistry - Biosphere - Noosphere. The theory of V.I. by Levit G.S.

By Levit G.S.

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Chlorinated hydrocarbons thermally decompose to form phosgene and hydrochloric acids. These decomposition by-products are corrosive to metals and also damage cellulosic fibers. Solvents are expensive so they must be recovered a n d purified by distillation requiring special equipment. The distillation residue becomes a solid waste disposal problem. Solvents do not aid in the removal of motes, metal ions, starch and other solvent. B. Common Solvents Listed below are some of the more common solvents used commercially.

Three chemical methods can be used to degrade starch into water soluble compounds namely, Enzymes, Acid Hydrolysis and Oxidation. Each method has its own peculiar advantages and disadvantages. 1. Enzyme Desizing Enzyme desizing is the most widely practiced method of desizing starch. Enzymes a r e high molecular weight protein biocatalyst that are very specific in their action. Enzymes are named after the compound they break down, for example, Amylase breaks down amylose and amylopectin, Maltase breaks down maltose and Cellulase breaks down cellulose.

2-Ethyl-1- hexanol is made by t h e Aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. 4. Straight chain primary alcohols ranging from C6 to C24 are made by the Alfol process, a catalytic polymerization of ethylene. 5. Cetyl alcohol is found in spermaceti oil. Chemically, spermaceti oil is a wax a n d is the mono-ester of palmitic acid a n d cetyl alcohol. 37 D. Mineral Wax 1. Paraffin Paraffin waxes come from a purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum. This mixture contains C23 to C33 hydrocarbons.

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