Basic Civil Engineering (As per the syllabus of RGPV, by S S Bhavikatti

By S S Bhavikatti

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State different uses of timber. CHAPTER 2 Mortars Mortar is an intimate mixture of binding material, fine aggregate and water. When water is added to the dry mixture of binding material and the inert material, binding material develops the property that binds not only the inert material but also the surrounding stones and bricks. If the cement is the binding material, then the mortar is known as cement mortar. Other mortars commonly used are lime mortar and mud mortar. The inert material used is sand.

When water is added to cement, C3A is the first to react and cause initial set. It generates great amount of heat. C3S hydrates early and develops strength in the first 28 days. It also generates heat. C2S is the next to hydrate. It hydrates slowly and is responsible for increase in ultimate strength. C4AF is comparatively inactive compound. (ii) Physical properties: The following physical properties should be checked before selecting a portland cement for the civil engineering works. IS 269–1967 specifies the method of testing and prescribes the limits: (a) Fineness (b) Setting time (c) Soundness (d) Crushing strength.

A weighing platform is used in the field to pick up correct proportion of sand and coarse aggregates. Large weigh batching plants have automatic weighing equipments. 2. Mixing: To produce uniform and good concrete, it is necessary to mix cement, sand and coarse aggregate, first in dry condition and then in wet condition after adding water. The following methods are practiced: (a) Hand Mixing (b) Machine Mixing. (a) Hand Mixing: Required amount of coarse aggregate for a batch is weighed and is spread on an impervious platform.

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