By Philip Arestis, Malcolm Sawyer (eds.)
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Extra resources for Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union
18 in December 2005. These swings in the euro–dollar exchange rate do not only impact on the USA and the euro area countries, since many countries link their currency with either the dollar or the euro, and consequently their own exchange rate position is much affected by the euro–dollar exchange rate oscillations. These large movements in the exchange rate are not conducive to decision-making with regard to participation in trade or to undertaking foreign investment. The volatility of the exchange rates not only discourages trade but also exacerbates the vulnerability of national economies to external events.
Presumably the implication is that the euro area does not need an exchange rate policy. 28 Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union 7. The euro exchange rate The euro has become the second major currency in the world after the dollar. The euro, of course, replaced another major currency (DMark) and some other not quite so major currencies such as the French franc. The euro can be viewed as the second currency after the dollar when considered in terms of the size of the eurozone economy, the use of the euro for international trade and the degree to which other countries have linked their currency to the euro.
They can be evaded (legally or otherwise) through switching from regulated to unregulated forms of credit including the development of products which fall outside the range of regulation and the switch of lending to overseas sources. Credit controls may have some effect in restraining credit and thereby expenditure, but the relaxation of credit controls may do little to stimulate expenditure during a downswing. Credit controls may have a role to play in slowing down the development of asset price bubbles, which may be worthwhile in so far as the extent of the subsequent downturn is a function of the extent of ‘irrational exuberance’.