Allies at Odds?: The United States and the European Union by T. Mowle

By T. Mowle

Why, regardless of their related objectives, do the coverage personal tastes of the ecu Union and usa diverge on such a lot of multilateral matters? to reply to that query, Allies at Odds completely examines contemporary overseas efforts in palms keep watch over, environmental security, human rights, and army cooperation. proof from twenty separate situations helps the expectancies of the realist method of overseas politics, which specializes in the function of energy specifically. Neither cultural elements nor overseas associations have as a lot impact as a few anticipate. This discovering was once as real in the course of the Clinton Presidency as through the present Bush management, indicating that targeting personalities overlooks extra titanic and longer-lasting adjustments among the Atlantic allies.

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By applying at least a veneer of hierarchy to intra-European relations, the presence of the EU may reduce the applicability of realist theory among those states. On the other hand, since the members of the EU do retain sovereignty, albeit constrained by costly-to-break treaties, it is unclear if one can legitimately treat the EU itself as a rational unitary political unit acting within the larger systemic anarchy. Rather than make an arbitrary choice between the two, and rather than staking these findings on such a choice, this chapter introduces hypotheses that treat both the EU and its members as actors.

If the Americans either oppose multilateral policies that extend their own domestic laws, or if they support multilateral agreements that contrast with their existing domestic laws, then the epistemic approach is not supported. For the Europeans, the epistemic approach is evaluated in exactly the same way. If the Europeans act together to support multilateral agreements that constrain American capabilities or freedom of action, or if they act separately to support the American position on a multilateral agreement, then realism is supported.

With “the West” having conclusively demonstrated its superiority over communist models, states concluded their best hope for future gain was to imitate success. 30 Now that the immediate post–Cold War turbulence has ended, the question for the realist approach is to assess which behavior, balancing or bandwagoning, is most likely to occur. The first step is to define the distribution of capabilities (power). For much of modern history this distribution was multipolar. Many states competed for power; coalitions and countercoalitions formed, sometimes going to war, sometimes not.

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