By Denis Howe
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Extra info for Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout (Aerospace Series (PEP))
Nevertheless, in spite of the important effect of the distortion on the aerodynamic derivatives and the loads calculated by using them. thcrc is no easy alternative to the assumption of a rigid airframe for the initiation of the loading analysis. Subsequent correction for the effects of distortion is essential. 5. I Specification of design conditions Operating and design flight envelopes The structural integrity of the aircraft must be established at all points on, and within, its operating envelope with adequate allowance for possible excursions outside this envelope.
Thus the structural design flight envelope represents more severe conditions than are specified for the operating envelope, especially in respect of the maximum design speed. The envelope is defined in terms of combinations of forward speeds and altitudes upon which are superimposed manoeuvres and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The forward speeds and altitudes are determined by the performance requirements of the aircraft. Manoeuvre conditions may be determined by specific performance requirements or, like the effects of atmospheric turbulence, the general requirements for that class of aircraft.
Thus fuel mass reduces as it is consumed and the payload may he disposed of in combat operations. To further complicate the matter the design mass may have more than one value. For example it is not unusual for military aircraft to have a specified 'overload' takeoff mass associated with reduced performance requirements such as the allowable manoeuvres. In the case of some larger transport aircraft a 'ramp' mass is defined that is somewhat greater than the design take-off mass and allows for the fuel used between engine start-up and the commencement of the take-off run.