By Robert B. Killingsworth (Editor), G. W. Pearce (Editor)
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The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) used to be validated in 1997 by means of the nationwide learn Council (NRC). It presents a science-oriented, apolitical discussion board for leaders within the chemical sciences to debate chemically comparable concerns affecting executive, undefined, and universities. geared up by way of the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and expertise, the CSR goals to bolster the chemical sciences by means of fostering conversation one of the humans and organizations-spanning undefined, govt, universities, associations-involved with the chemical company.
Themes in quantity forty eight include:Effects of codeposition of hydrogen at the constitution of electrodeposited copperNew periods of electrode fabrics brought by way of spontaneous deposition of Ru and Os on Au(111) and Pt(111) unmarried crystal surfacesRecent advancements on steel, steel oxide, and conductive polymer electrodeposition for power machine applicationsSurface morphology of activated electrodes on their electrochemical propertiesElectrochemical micromachining and floor microstructuring in response to porous-type anodization of patterned filmsIn-depth overview of the most recent advancements in electroless depositionFrom studies of earlier volumes:"This long-standing sequence maintains its culture of supplying top of the range reports of proven and rising topic parts, including the fewer universal points of electrochemical technology.
The thrill of the chemistry of organofluorine compounds stems from the original reactions that come up and the "special results" that advent of fluorine impart on a molecule. certainly, those results are actually exploited in a striking array of functions the total of the chemical, pharmaceutical, and plant-protection industries.
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Relation of Unsulfonated Residue to Phytotoxicity I n 1927 DeOng, Knight, and Chamberlin (3) showed that injury to citrus trees was associated with a high content of unsaturated hydrocarbons, that these toxic materials could be removed by sulfuric acid treatment, and that a high unsulfonated residue (92% or greater) indicated that a tree spray oil was nearly devoid of unsaturates and thus safe for use at recommended dosages. Since the general acceptance of this work, the per cent unsulfonated residue (1) has been the primary indicator of acceptable quality for petroleum products marketed as foliage sprays.
This is illustrated in Table I I I . I t is observed from the above data that the control (freshly refined oil) had an u n sulfonated residue of 9 7 % , indicating a nearly complete absence of unsaturates. This material, prior to light exposure for variable periods of time, gave no injury when applied at 100% concentration. However, after 141 days of storage i n brilliant light, 6 5 % of the leaf surface of plants sprayed to point of runoff showed acute toxicity. The unsulfonated residue remained unchanged.
25 (5), 1 0 0 7 - 1 2 (1932). (9) English, L . L . , J. Agr. Research, 41 (2), 131-3 (1930). (10) Erb, L. , Calif. Dept. , Div. , Chart No. , Calif. State Print ing Office, 1932. (11) Finney, D. , Ann. , 31 (1), 68 (1944). (12) (13) (14) (15) Flanders, S . , 36 (2), Gray, G . , Lindgren, D. , J. Econ. , 29 (5), 1 0 2 3 - 4 (1936). 2 3 3 - 5 (1943). and DeOng, E . , Ind. Eng. , 18 (2), 1 7 5 - 8 0 (1926). , Hilgardia, 11 (5), 2 1 1 - 2 5 (1938). (16) Lindgren, D. , unpublished data on file at University of California Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Calif.