By Peter W. Hawkes (ed.)
This sequence covers a variety of issues, stretching from the particle optics of accelerators, mass spectrometers, electron and ion microscopes, and of person elements of those tools to theoretical and functional facets of contemporary electroinics. one other vast intterest is electronic picture processing and trend acceptance, together with the units hired and the tools built. Electron physics is interpreted very liberally and articles are usually integrated on fabrics of present curiosity in addition to at the units that hire them. the item of the sequence is to supply articles which can evaluation a brand new or swiftly constructing box, or may well hide decades of analysis, therefore supplying a small monograph on a particular topic. "Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics" quantity 86 gains articles at the following subject matters: GaAs semiconductor thoughts; photograph processing; N-beam calculators; and electron optics.
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Extra info for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 86
To permit reliable detection 28 JAMES A. COOPER. JR. i (undoped) 30nm N+ 10’’ cmJ i (undoped) 30nm FIGURE16. Storage capacitor having p-i-n-i-p structure. The presence of the undoped i layers reduces the maximum electric field in the junction, minimizing field-induced barrier lowering, while still providing a high capacitance per unit area. of the signal charge during readout and to minimize soft errors due to alpha particle strikes, a dynamic memory must store a certain minimum charge in each cell.
The write pulse (middle waveform) momentarily forward biases the pn junction storage capacitor, removing electrons from the n-region. During the first word line pulse, the JFET is turned on and electrons flow from the bit line to the storage capacitor to restore the missing electrons. This causes the bit line to jump to a positive potential. The rapid decay of the bit line signal is caused by the RC time constant of the active probe. By the end of the first word line pulse, the bit line potential has essentially returned to ground, and as a result the storage capacitor is also essentially at ground, The second word line pulse produces almost no response on the bit line, since the storage capacitor is 36 JAMES A.
The primary mechanisms affecting DRAM storage time are drain-to-source current I,,, and drain-to-gate current I,. 38 JAMES A. COOPER, JR. 5V Transistor ON 0.. c p! 0 . 5 Gate Voltage (V) FIGURE28. Drain current as a function of gate voltage in a GaAs field-effect transistor. I,, is the drain-to-source current and IDG is the drain-to-gate current. I,, decreases exponentially with gate voltage below threshold, but eventually I,, dominates. This gate current is not present in silicon MOS transistors, but it is the dominant leakage mechanism in most FET-accessed GaAs DRAM cells.