By Stefano Ceri, Piero Fraternali (auth.), Antoni Olivé, Joan Antoni Pastor (eds.)
This e-book constitutes the refereed lawsuits of the ninth overseas convention on complicated details structures Engineering, CAiSE'97, held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 1997. the quantity offers 30 revised complete papers chosen from a complete of 112 submissions; additionally integrated is one invited contribution. The booklet is split into topical sections on necessities engineering; details structures layout; equipment, environments, and instruments; disbursed details structures; and workflow systems.
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Extra resources for Advanced Information Systems Engineering: 9th International Conference, CAiSE'97 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, June 16–20, 1997 Proceedings
1 . . .. . - 1 800 2800 I I “.. -. i —- 1000 3000 . -t : . - . 1 . . - # . . . I . . —. -. 1 — .. - i . - . -”----- 1200 1400 1600 1800 3200 3400 3600 3800 I . 2000 4000 CHANNEL Fig. 2% 235(J). The intense gamma rays at 766 and 1001 keV are from the 238U daughter 234mPa, and are often used for the assay of 238U. Most of the weak gamma rays above 1001 keV also come @om 234mPa. (Ann. Rad. :1 1 400 3925 3931 4’” \ 105 6 c) 104 103 102 10’ 400 450 500 550 600 ENERGY 650 700 750 800 (keV) Fig.
Other sources of background are occasionally encountered, such as materials contaminated by radioactive tracers. Slag from steel furnaces, which can have measurable levels of ‘°Co, tid uranium tailings are used as a concrete aggregate in some ~eas. The use of such materials in buildings can contribute to background radiation levels. 4 has been limited to gamma rays that come from the natural decay reactions of radioactive nuclides; these gamma rays provide the bulk of the signatures useful for nondestructive assay.
9 shows a spectrum of depleted uranium; the spectrum shows the 238Udaughter radiations often used for 23*U assay. 11 are gamma-ray spectra of plutonium with approximate 240FUconcentrations of 14% and 6%, respectively. $e differences are used to determine the plutonium isotopic composition (see discussion in Chapter 8). 12 shows the characteristic gamma-ray spectrum of 232~ all major thorium gamma rays come from daughter nuclides. 2 Major Gamma-Ray Signatures for Nuclear Material Assay In principle, any of the gamma rays from nuclear material can be used to determine the maw of the isotope that produces them.